Civil War Timeline
Initial Secession November 1860 after Abraham Lincoln elected president 11southern states left the union. Alabama Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi South Carolina Texas Arkansas North Carolina Tennessee Virginia all left
Confederacy Formed February 1861 11 southern states that succeeded from the union in order to preserve slave rights and political liberty for whites formed the Confederacy with Jefferson Davis as president and asked for a peaceful separation
Fort Sumter South Carolina April 12, 1861 first shots that started the American Civil War here. South Carolina wanted the US Army to leave its facilities in the Charleston Harbor. South Carolina authorities seized all federal property in the Charleston area except for Fort. Brig. Gen. Beauregard with Confederate Army was in command in Charleston the Confederate Army wanted them to evacuate the Fort but major Anderson did not want to surrender the Confederates fired upon the Fort after 34 hours major Anderson agreed to evacuate there was no loss of life after the battle there was widespread support from both the North and the South for further military action.
First Bull Run July 16, 1861 first major land battle of the war. In Virginia Army Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington the Confederate army led by Thomas Jackson later named Stonewall Jackson was waiting behind Bull Run. Confederate reinforcements came and started to win and the federal troops retreated and went back to Washington by July 22. The South won.
Monitor and Merrimack March 9, 1862 also called Battle of Hampton Roads naval battle in Virginia Harbor at the mouth of the James River the duel between ironclad warships the beginning of a new era of naval warfare. The South had Merrimack it look like a floating barn roof commanded by Commodore Franklin Buchanan. The Union army had a fleet of wooden warships that were defeated off Newport News on March 8. The union sent ironclad ship monitor under the command Lieut. John Worden arrived it had water level decks and a gun turn it was a new design for Navy vessels. Both crews lacked training and firing was ineffective. The monitor could only fire once every seven or 8 min. but it was fast. The battle made the South think that the Union blockade might get broken. The South one against the wooden ships but the battle between the two ironclads was indecisive. The battle had a profound effect on the morale in both regions.
Peninsular Campaign July 1862 a major union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862 the first large scale offensive in the Eastern theater. George McClellan of the union and Joseph Johnston of the Confederate armies. Humiliating a union defeat because of the aggressive Gen. Robert E Lee. Johnson was replaced by Robert E Lee when he was hurt in battle. There were many battles between the York River and the James River
Second Bull Run August 28–30 1862 also called Second Manassas Confederate victory. 14,000 Union soldiers dead 8000 confederate soldiers dead. Fought in Virginia it was the culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E Lee Army of Northern Virginia against union major general John Pope Army of Virginia it was a larger scale battle than the battle of Bull Run the first time in 1861. Confederate Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson captured the union supply depot at Manassas Junction.
Antietam and Lincoln’s warning September 17, 1862. Nobody won the battle it was a draw Sharpsburg Washington County Maryland Union Maj. Gen. George McClellan Confederate Gen. Robert E Lee. Union army 75,300 Confederate army 52,000. Union victory in that Lee had to withdraw two Virginia. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac into Maryland. He wanted to take the pressure off the crop producing areas of the Confederacy at harvest time. He wanted to encourage European support for the Confederacy by winning a battle on Northern soil. He wanted to make Northerners reduced their support for the war and encourage slave holding state of Maryland to secede and join the Confederacy. Lincoln’s warning Abraham Lincoln issued upper limit very Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 it said that if the southern states did not cease their rebellion by January 1, 1863 than the proclamation would go into effect.
Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 because the South did not stop the final Emancipation Proclamation went into effect January 1, 1863. President Lincoln justified the proclamation as a war measure intended to cripple the Confederacy. Lincoln applied the proclamation only to the southern states in the rebellion Lincoln was only supported after a victory at Antietam it finally persuaded his cabinet members to support him. Lincoln waited for a Union victory until he announced it. Change the focus of the war up until then the focus had been to preserve the union but now it was freedom from slavery. Britain and France had considered supporting the Confederacy in the war but the Emancipation Proclamation help prevent involvement of foreign nations
Gettysburg July 1-3 1863 Gettysburg Pennsylvania battle involved the largest number of deaths in the entire war it was the wars turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Gen. Robert E Lee Army of Northern Virginia ending leaves attempts to invade the North. Lee wanted to go north to Pennsylvania between 46,050 1000 soldiers from both armies were killed in the three-day battle. The North thought that the war was going to be over but the South wouldn’t give up and the war went on for two more years.
Vicksburg May 18 -July 4, 1863 the siege of Vicksburg was the final major military action in the Vicksburg campaign. Union major general Ulysses S Grant and his Army of the Tennessee cross the Mississippi and drove the Confederate Army of Vicksburg led by Lieut. Gen. John Pemberton into the fortress city of Vicksburg Mississippi. There were no reinforcements and supplies were nearly gone the South held out for 40 days but surrendered on July 4. This yielded command of the Mississippi River to the union forces who would hold it for the rest of the conflict. This with Gettysburg was considered the turning point of the war. It cut off the states of Arkansas Louisiana and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy.
Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863 Abraham Lincoln made the speech four score and seven years ago…… All men are created equal. It ends with government of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from this earth he gave a speech at the official dedication of the national cemetery of Gettysburg and Pennsylvania on the site of the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. He invoked the principles of human equality contained in the declaration of independence and talked about the sacrifices of the Civil War and the importance of preserving the union and its ideal of self-government.
Atlanta and Savannah (Sherman’s March) November 15-December 21, 1864 union general William Sherman led 60,000 soldiers on the 285 mile march from Atlanta to Savannah Georgia the purpose was to frighten Georgia’s civilian population into leaving the Confederate cause. Shermans soldiers did not destroy any of the towns but they stole food and livestock and they burned the houses down of people who try to fight back. The Yankees were not fighting armies but hostile people. Shermans troops captured Atlanta September 2, 1864. Atlanta was a railroad hub and the industrial center of the Confederacy. It had factories and warehouses that kept the Confederate Army supplied with food weapons and other goods. Southern troops only fought a few battles because they were so badly beaten by the Yankees. Shermans total war in Georgia was destructive but it did what it was supposed to do hurt southern more out and hasten the end of the war.
Richmond Falls April 3, 1865 the rebel capital city of Richmond Virginia falls to the union it is the most significant sign that the Confederacy is nearing its final days. Ulysses S Grant have been trying to get the city than the Yankees came in and took the prize. The city’s black residents were very happy the first forces into the capital were black troopers from the fifth Massachusetts Calvary and the next day Pres. Abraham Lincoln visited the city.
Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 final battle of the Confederate states Army Gen. Robert E Lee Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the union Army Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S Grant. One of the last battles of the American Civil War. Lee abandoned the capital of Richmond he retreated West union forces pursued and cut off the retreat at the village Of Appomattox Court, House Lee surrendered. The Army of Northern Virginia disbanded ending the war in Virginia this event triggered a series of surrenders across the South signaling the end of the war.