Events Leading to the Civil War
John Winthrop City upon a Hill 1630 he told his people they would have to work together to survive governor of Massachusetts
Jamestown Settlement and colonial Virginia 1607 tobacco, no. This, slaves in the South, no slaves in the North
Massachusetts Bay Colony Puritan, less agricultural more trading
The Puritans Mass. Bay Colony 1629 believed in predestination, NOT universal religious freedom
Navigation Acts external tax, everything goes through England
French and Indian War (Seven Years War) nine years 9, land speculation they fought for land they could not move into caused English to go broke
Proclamation of 1763 The end of the French and Indian War called 7 year war but 9 years long. Land speculation The proclamation, in effect, closed off the frontier to colonial expansion.
The Sugar Act 1764 molasses rum smuggling
The Stamp Act 1765, taxation without representation in English Parliament, redo of the navigation acts
Declaratory Act England can make any law they want to
Townshend Acts The colonists violently against
British customs officials and the colonists’ treatment of them unscrupulous customs agents, as the colonies’ largest port and largest center of smuggling. John Hancock was also a major target, as a wealthy merchant and an influential advocate for colonial rights. June 9, 1772: The Burning of the Gaspee In an act of open defiance against British rule, more than one hundred Rhode Island colonists burn the corrupt customs ship Gaspee to the waterline after it runs aground near Providence
Boston Massacre 1770 Five people were killed, they were protecting a British building
The Tea Act 1773 allows the East India company to import at a low cost tea but only through them
Boston Tea Party 1773
Intolerable/Coercive Acts 1774 altered the government of Massachusetts to bring it under control of the British ,The Quartering Act method of housing British troops in America
Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” 1776 wanted freedom under George III and that the king was worse than the parliament
John Locke cares about property, thought power came from the people
Virtual Representation American view- William Pitt argued that the colonies could not be taxed without representation in Parliament. British View- Grenville argued people were “virtually represented” in Parliament they represent everybody not just those in their area
First Continental Congress 1774 question of Parliamentary authority.
- Congress approved it said that no obedience was due to the Coercive Acts
- they decided that the parliament in England did not have the right to tax them
- they decided that the parliament in England did not have the right to legislate to them
Second Continental Congress 1775 they voted to raise an army , George Washington to command
Olive Branch Petition, blamed Parliament, King should step in and do something
George Washington general of the Continental Army. His military strategy was to retreat winner fought the longest. He was very wealthy wanted America to govern itself. He brought people that did not have a lot in common together. He ordered the troops to have discipline. The Congressional Congress believed that the American militia armed with “Righteousness” would outmatch the British forces.
Declaration of Independence All men are created equal and they have certain rights like life liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That the people being governed have the right to have a say and how they are governed. That any government that doesn’t allow them to have a say a have the right to abolish the government and started new government.
Battle of Lexington and Concord 1775. The British Army set out from Boston to destroy the Americans store of weapons and ammunition in Concord. The colonists were warned however, by riders including Paul Revere, that the British Army was approaching. was able to hide much of their ammunition and weapons
Siege of Boston opening of the American Revolutionary War (1775-83), colonial militiamen, who later became part of the Continental army, successfully laid siege to British-held Boston, Massachusetts. The siege included the June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill, in which the British defeated an inexperienced colonial force that nevertheless managed to inflict heavy casualties. In July 1775, General George Washington arrived in the Boston area to take charge of the newly established Continental army Realizing Boston was indefensible to the American positions, the British evacuated the town
Battle of Bunker Hill 1775 slaughter of the redcoats lots of English died, US ran out of ammo
George Washington’s army: characteristics they were unprofessional, no uniforms, no supplies and no food. African American Soldiers 25,000 fought
Battle of Long Island August 1776 English had 30,000 men. Washington also had 30,000 England’s General Howe followed a rulebook
Battle of Trenton Dec 1776 General Howe pushed Gen. Washington across the Delaware River stopped for winter. Washington’s army attack them and captured 1000 Hessians.
Battle of Saratoga oct 1777 England came from Canada down to New England to cut it off from the rest of the colonies, didn’t send troops in New York up England surrendered
Battle of Yorktown
British monarchs and their colonial policy
First Continental Congress (three decisions - Morgan 5)
Second Continental Congress (three decisions - Morgan 5)
The Olive Branch Petition, response
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation made a limited national government most power in states
Constitutional Convention (including competing plans, Morgan 10) 1787 philadelphia 12 states went rhode island didn’t come Virginia plan larger ststes more power new jersey plan kept ststes more powerful I vote per state small states liked it
Federalists supported constitution and Anti-Federalists articles of confed
Features of the Constitution
Six Basic Principles of the Constitution popular soveringty, all power held by people., power to govern given by constitution, limited govt- govt can only do what people say, separation of power, checks and balences,judicial review- power of court to say constitutional ok, federalism- only the govt can do some things then states can do some things ect.
Checks each branch has on others legistative can impeach prez, prez can veto, leg confirms judges, judges can saw laws or prez unconstit, prez chooses judges,
Original 13 states
Describe the family structure/roles in Massachusetts (men, women and children) follow the church, be moral, everybody bring in money
3. What motivated people from Britain to come to America? America land pressures in Britain, and closure acts, population growth
How/why were the Americans able to defeat the largest military in the world in the Revolutionary War? French Indians Captured them, retreat thing, fought dirty
6. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including specific limitations and events? All 13 colonies had to vote same way, difficult to get things done
8. Role of the French in the War (Morgan, Chapter 6) had navy ships
9. How did the colonial population divide over support for the war? (Morgan, Chapter 6)
11 What are the main arguments in Federalist 10? (James Madison)
14. Features of the original Constitution that Robert Dahl identifies as 'undemocratic'?
slavery sufferage electoral collage, 2 senators per state no mater population, judicial can says laws unconstitutional,list of congress powers
15. Bill of Rights (why it was written? Know roughly what each one says)
Press, arms, speech, house soilders, no search unless u commit crime, anything not in constitution up to states, other rights not in it, no too high payment of fines, jury in civil cases
17. Understand the Amendment Process
Essay — Please do not write out your answers in paragraph form. Instead, use an outline.
After the French and Indian War, the American colonists were prouder than ever to be subjects of Great Britain. However, fifteen years later, this would not be the case. What happened?!?
In your essay, make an opening argument (thesis statement) that takes a stand on this topic: Were the Americans justified in their rebellion against Great Britain? Discuss what you believe to be the 3 most important arguments that were used to justify America’s revolt against Great Britain and take a stand on each. Were they valid or invalid? Use at least one detailed and specific historical example for each argument. Make sure that your detailed and specific evidence clearly supports your thesis.
Thesis — American colonists were not happy with the british 15 years after French Indian war because of their escalating ateempts to tax, legislate and bully the colony.
- Virtual representatiom
- intolerable took mass govt
- not letting move west
- customs officials