The Reconstruction Era and Jim Crow
433 Land Ownership
In the reconstruction period whites faced a net decline in land ownership while blacks experienced an increase from zero to 20 percent, Most black laborers worked a system called sharecropping. What is sharecropping and what was the benefit for landowners?
Sharecropping is when you work your own plot of land and you pay your landlord either of fixed rent or share of your crop. It was better for the white owners because they did not have the cost of purchasing slaves or any of the responsibility for feeding them are housing them.
434 Incomes and Credit
Impacts of Reconstruction on per capita incomes.
Prewar blacks earned 22% share of the profits, by the end of Reconstruction they earned 56%. Income of blacks rose 46% between 1857 and 1879 and the per Will and come up whites declined 35% this was the biggest redistribution of money in American history
Impacts of systems of credit on the crop-lien system as well as the impacts of that system — stores and cash crops. And what was that system.
Southern farmers don’t have a steady paycheck like other workers so they had to rely on credit to purchase what they needed. Most of the stores had no competition. They set interest rates at 50 or 60% because there was no competition. Farmers gave the merchants a lien or a claim on their crops as collateral for the loan. If you suffered a bad crop year they were in debt and they could never escape the debt. Southern farmers became dependent on cash crops like cotton. Cotton was bad for farming and the soil
436 African American family
Causes of rapid departure from plantations, gender roles and economics.
A major reason for so many blacks leaving plantation was to find lost relatives and reunite families. Blacks got married because they didn’t have legal standing before. Families didn’t want to live in former slave orders and moved to small cabins so they could have privacy. Black families started looking more like white families where women and children stopped working in the fields. Some women worked as maids or took in laundry. By the end of Reconstruction 50% of black women over 16 were working for money and most were married.
What time period is considered to be the Reconstruction period? 1865–1877
What does “redemption” mean in this case and what were the characteristics of the old as well as new redeemers? What did “new Democratic regimes” do?
1877 the last withdrawal of federal troops in the South every Southern government had been redeemed political power had been restored to white Democrats redeemers were a new ruling class they were merchants developers they combined with a commitment to home rule and social conservativism. They were known for waste and fraud. They lower taxes reduce spending and lowered state services they eliminated or reduce their support for public school systems.
Describe changes in industry: textiles, metals manufacturing and railroads, impact on incomes/wages.
Textile factories were built in the South the tobacco processing industry built factories. Southern iron and steel and railroad development. The South’s per capital income increased 21% the average income in the South was only 40% of that in the North. Most of the money came from the north so the profits went back to the north to
Women in the workplace
Most women worked in the textile industry. Because so many men died in the Civil War there was a large population of unmarried women needed employment. Factories hired whole families the hours were long up to 12 hours a day and the wages were below the northern equivalent of the same job. Some factories paid Southern workers have of what the northern workers got. They were allowed to be unions
African Americans in industry
Some industries like textiles didn’t offer jobs to black workers. If they did get a job it was the lowest paid position
Cultural contact implications.
In some mill towns there are places where black and white culture came together white leaders took measures to protect white supremacy.
447 Tenants and Sharecroppers
1900 figure of agricultural tenantry.
During Reconstruction a third of the farmers in the South were tenant farmers by 1900 that increased to 70% farmers who rented could never get enough money to buy the land
It is when you do not own your land you are at tenant somebody else owns the land and you farm it but you have to give a percentage of your crops or money to the person who actually owns the land.
Toe-mae-toe, Toe-ma-to: What’s the crop-lien system versus sharecropping?
The crop lien system is when you promise future earnings on your farm crops before you even plant them to whoever gave you the money probably a bank after the crops and you pay a huge percentage rate like 60 or 70%.
Sharecropping is when somebody else owns your land and you just work on it and you give them a percentage of the crops and there is very little way for you to ever own the land because there is no money left at the end of the month
447 African Americans in the New South
Who is Booker T Washington? What did he advocate? What was the Atlanta Compromise?
Booker T. Washington was the founder and president of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He was born a slave he worked his way out of poverty he got an education and he told of the blacks to improve themselves. He told blacks they needed to go to school learned skills in a trade in that industry not classical education should be their goal. He told them they needed to work on their speech improve their dress and adopt the habits of cleanliness and the standards of the white middle class. The Atlanta compromise was a famous speech in Georgia in 1895 he said blacks should not worry about political rights and concentrate on self-improvement the speech told whites that blacks would never challenge the system of segregation
448 Birth of Jim Crow
How did the Supreme Court strip the Fourteenth Amendment of their significance and power?
In 1883 civil rights case the court ruled that the 14th amendment said state government couldn’t discriminate gay against people because of race but didn’t restrict private organizations or individual people from doing so so people could legally practice segregation
How did the Supreme Court strip Fifteenth Amendments of their significance and power?
Poll tax which meant you had to be rich to vote or the literacy or understanding test which required voters to demonstrate the ability to read and interpret the Constitution. The law affected poor white voters as well as blacks by 1890s the black vote had decreased by 62% and the white vote decreased by 26%.
In the 1890s a dramatic increase in white violence against blacks “served to inhibit black agitation for equal rights”. Describe this institutionalized racism under Jim Crow.
Elaborate system of segregation. Black-and-white separated everywhere railroad cars waiting rooms bathrooms restaurants theaters blacks couldn’t go to public parks beaches or picnic areas and they couldn’t be patients in hospitals
In the 1890s there were 187 lynchings every year where white mobs hung blacks
Who is Ida B. Wells and what did she do?
She was a black journalist she started an international anti-lynching movement got support from women its goal with the federal anti-lynching law allowing the federal government to punish those responsible for lynchings.
(P.451) What did “the shared commitment to white supremacy” do?
Even or whites were did rich white policies for whites felt at least they were better than black people