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What was true of Native Americans? Commonalities, differences among them?

  • Indians traded with each other
  • NDN spoke to each other in a universal trading language called Chinook jargon it was a mix of Salish, Nootka, Chinook and English words
  • they traded corn, fish, vennison, booze, five record, Flint, salt
  • Indian life began to change when all these new white instruments entered their life like guns and alcohol
  • Indians started to fight each other for land to trap
  • Iroquois Indians dominated the northeastern for trade
  • Iroquois Indians joined forces with the Dutch and the British because they were mad at the French who had joined forces with the Huron Indians
  • the Rocky Mountain beaver was nearly extinct as well as Buffalo because Indians wanted the hides and pelts leaving the meat to rot on the plains
  • when the Indians destroyed all the natural resources to get pelts the Indians stop being prosperous and now the Indians were dependent on white goods especially gun powder and shot
  • Hopi Indians have never seen a horse in 1583 eventually depended upon them for everything
  • Sioux Indians were a canoe culture and 30 years later they depended on horses and became warriors riding Appaloosa horses
  • crop raising Pueblo Indians in the Southwest started using metal hose and shovels
  • Navajo Indians changed because of Spanish sheep and goats they were originally hunters but became herdsman they started trading the wool from their sheep and blankets and treating animals
  • there was a decline of ancient crafts like pottery and porcupine quill embroidery because Native Americans started using European house paints to color totem poles and silk ribbons pearl buttons English red and blue cloth and Venetian glass beads to make native costumes.
  • Native tribes who used to be enemies would go to trading posts together and trade furs

What was the nature of their interactions with European Americans and the US government?

  • the first trade between Indians and Europeans was in the 11th century where Indians and Nova Scotia traded for Viking knives and axes in return for Fox and Sable pelts
  • the exchange of firsts for metal would be the core of Indian and white trade
  • 15th and 16th centuries would and furbearing animals became scarce in Europe so they came across the water looking for raw materials
  • French, English, Dutch, Americans competed for exclusive trading privileges with Indian tribes they gave them bribes of trinkets, liquor and guns
  • Indians showed the Europeans were to find salt, tobacco, wood and fish and they shipped the back to Europe
  • Iroquois Indians joined forces with the Dutch and the British because they were mad at the French who had joined forces with the Huron Indians
  • beaver was very valuable for Europe hat making
  • Indians wanted from the whites tomahawks, scissors, needles, Mears, Demon rum, brandy, muskets, powder, shot
  • there were front tier trading outposts and Indians brought furs in the spring to trade
  • Native Americans were dependent on watered-down liquor spiced with tobacco and red pepper
  • Native Americans were hooked on mass-produced goods and change their way of life
  • once the Indians exhausted their furs and hides they had nothing left to trade with the white man except for land which the white man took without a fair exchange


    Living beside Each Other

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What was true of Native Americans? Commonalities, differences among them?

  • Indians felt that they were the first occupiers and custodians not its surveyors and engineers
  • the Indians did not define the land as a commercial product like sugar or gun powder
  • Creek chief speckled snake said about Indian tribes that the whites want them to get a little further you are too near me
  • Blankets were traditional Indians
  • Pawnee leader spoke to James Munro in 1822 he said that Indians have Redskin said they could be uncultivated in the words and feet on wild animals and dress in their skins in a major skin white seed could cultivate the earth and feed on domestic animals
  • Indians believed that manifest destiny meant they would lose their tribal birthright and the traditional land and they could be fugitives or conquered nation

What was the nature of their interactions with European Americans and the US government?

  • In the beginning that Lena Coast Indians were nice to the Europeans and it helped the newcomers stay alive in the world
  • squaw men was slang for whites who lived with Indian women and they found acceptance by Indians when white society turned away from them
  • half bread were offspring they were turned away from like me to these but could find Indian homes growing up bilingual and bicultural they could be interpreters and traders
  • Mestizo is a class with mingled blood of Indians and Europeans Spaniards
  • Red River Metis in Canada it is when there is an intermarriage between French and Indians
  • Europeans and Indians are very different in family life, social life, concept of property ownership, land use, work, leisure
  • they viewed each other as barbarians
  • the colonists felt that you could have private ownership of land and the Indians thought you could share land and have it in common
  • the white population increased to rapidly
  • the Eastern forests were running out of game
  • this pushed the Indians West