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I. Scientific breakthroughs- discoveries expand knowledge about the universe and the human body

A. The Ptolemaic System

1. Live in A.D. 100s was an astronomer. His system is geocentric and place the Earth at the center of the universe. Thought universe was a series of spheres and that earth was motionless. Humans At the center and God on the outside.

B. Nicholas Copernicus and Kepler

1. Copernicus mathematician said the universe was heliocentric or centered around the sun which was the center of the universe with the planets revolving around it.

2. Johanne Kepler used astronomical data to confirm the Sun was the center of the universe proved planets orbit around the sun in an egg shaped not circular

C. Galileo's discoveries

1. Using a telescope he proved mountains on Earth's moon, four moons around Jupiter and sunspots.

2. Proved stars are not orbs of light but they were composed of material substance just like Earth.

3. Galileo and trouble with Catholic Church because humans not at the center of the universe and God was no longer in a specific place.


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D. Isaac Newton

1. Tie together the ideas wrote the Principia defined three laws of motion.

2. Universal law of gravitation proved every object is attracted by force called gravity and explained all the motion in the universe.

II. Philosophy and Reason, reason is the chief source of knowledge.

A. Descartes and rationalism

1. René Descartes wrote about doubt and uncertainty

2. His philosophy one fact seemed beyond doubt his own existence his book called Discourse on method.

3. He wrote “I think therefore I am” and that mind and matter were completely separate. Matter could be investigated by reason.