The Arab Spring in Egypt
1. History of the protests
aWhen did the protests begin? Why did they begin? The protest began on January 25, 2011 when tens of thousands of Egyptians turned out on the streets of Cairo and other cities demanding an end to president Mubarak’s 30 year rule
bHow did the government respond? In the beginning the uprisings and demonstrations in the major cities including liberation Square were met with violence by police and supporters of the ruling party. By January 27 Egyptians broke through and started to fight back in street battles. On January 27 the government shut down the Internet and mobile service providers and the Army decided not to act against the protesters
cIdentify at least two other major events and government responses. 1.) Mubarak promised not to run for reelection in September but the protesters didn't believe his pledge. 2.) After 18 days of protests Mubarak agreed to leave office and Egypt's military stepped in to lead the transition until they could find a new government to be elected. 3.) Human rights groups estimate that 300 people died during the protest, 1500 protesters and 750 policemen were injured during the protests
dIdentify two international responses that seem significant.
1When the protests first started the Obama administration struggled to find the right response to the people of Egypt not wanting their current government against Mubarak's record as being a strong US ally
2After the military took over the government from Mubarak The United States is backing the military's decision to install a new president because Egypt is such a close ally of the United States the country gets 1.3 billion in annual US military aid and is as important strategic partner of the United States so they cannot call it a coup or they would have to stop sending aid
dHave international organizations (for example the Arab League, the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, etc.) or other countries been involved in events in your country? How?
The Arab League gave Egypt a lot of financial support after Egypt signed a resolution allowing growing regional influence of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states, which have extended Egypt billions of dollars in critical financial support since Mr. Morsi’s ouster
2.Today Who is in charge of the government ? Egypt's military has installed an interim civilian government with Adly Mansour as interim president. Days after he was sworn in, he issued a decree that gave himself some legislative power and outlined a path toward new elections. Before Mansour President Morsy became the president in June 2012, almost a year and a half after popular protests forced the resignation of Hosni Mubarak, who had ruled the country for 30 years.
aEgypt: briefly describe the rise and fall of the Muslim brotherhood. ? The Muslim brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi one the first election but many Egyptians wanted him out, too. They said the Western-educated Islamist, aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood movement, had been anything but inclusive since he took office, and they said he had failed to deliver on the people's aspirations for freedom and social justice. The military, however, redefined the post of president, stripping it of most of its former powers. The Muslim Brotherhood: Founded in the 1920s, the Ikhwan (as it is known in Arabic) combines political activism with charity work, and has served a model for Islamic groups around the world. The fall of the Muslim brotherhood happened when Morsi was overthrown by the military and the new president Mansour came to power.
bWill there be/were there elections? If so, when? Result? In the November, 2011 legislative elections — the first after Mubarak’s overthrow — Islamist parties including the Muslim Brotherhood won nearly two-thirds of the seats. In June, 2012, the Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate won the presidency Since taking power from Morsy, Then Egypt's military overthrew the first president and has installed an interim civilian government with Adly Mansour as interim president
What some challenges does the country faces today?
Nobody seems to agree on anything. They are almost in a cival war. Nobody is in charge. The military is barely holding on to power but there is violent protests almost everyday. Tourism was an important money maker in Egypt until 2011. Tourism is down 85% overall. Such a drop led to a decline in revenues for the industry, which were $8 billion, down from $12 billion the previous year.Tourism is one of Egypt's main foreign currency earners, along with remittances from Egyptians living abroad and Suez Canal revenue. The drop in tourism returns was reflected in the nation’s finances, which saw half of its foreign currency reserves wiped out in 2011 to reach $18 billion in December.
Challenge: What is happening in your country today? The turmoil that has taken over in Egypt since Mubarak stepped down is significant. Egypt is almost at a point where it will fall into a civil war between Islamists led by the Muslim Brotherhood on one side, and secularists, liberals, moderate Muslims and minority Christians on the other. On October 6, 2013 51 people died in Egypt when protesters both opponents and supporters of the countries ousted president Mohammed Morsi rallied in thousands. Ihe Muslim brotherhood faces a wave of trials for inciting violence and terrorism. The prosecutions are the next phase in the wide-scale crackdown on the Brotherhood following the military's July ouster of President Mohammed Morsi, who goes on trial next month. Economically Egypt has a 60% unemployment rate for youth and tourism has dropped 85%.