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Textbook pages 388-393

1. What is the principle of legitimacy? The lawful monarchs from the royal families who had ruled before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power. Austrian Prince Klemons von Metternich was the most influential leader at the meeting at the Congress of Vienna in September 1814 they came up with this plan because they believed it would ensure peace and stability in Europe.

2. Describe the Congress of Vienna scheme of balance of power throughout Europe

The great powers rearranged territories in Europe leaving that this would form a new balance of power. The powers at Vienna wanted to keep any one country from dominating Europe. This meant balancing political and military forces that guaranteed the independent of the great powers. To balance Russia for example new territories were given to Prussia and Austria.

3. What is conservatism and what did he hope to do? Conservatism is based on tradition and a belief system and the value of social stability. Most conservatives favored obedience to political authority. They believed that organized religion was crucial to keep order in society. Conservatives hated revolutions and were unwilling to accept demands from people who wanted individual rights or representative governments.

4. What is the principle of intervention? The great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones. Britain disagreed that other countries like Spain and Italy forces were used their to crush revolutions and restore monarchs to their thrones.

5. What is liberalism? Summarize the philosophy. Liberalism is the political philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment. Liberalism held that people should be as free as possible from government restraint. Liberals had a common set of political beliefs. Chief among them was protection of civil liberties or the basic rights of all people. These liberties included equality before the law, freedom of assembly, speech, and the press. Liberals believe these freedom should be guaranteed by a written document like the American Bill of Rights.

6. Describe nationalism and its relationship to liberalism nationalism was more powerful force for change than liberalism. Nationalism arose when people began to identify themselves as part of a community defined by a language common institutions and customs. This community is called a nation. Earlier people were loyal to attain now people were loyal to their nation. Most liberals believed that freedom could only be possible in people who ruled themselves each group of people should have its own state and new state should attempt to dominate another state the association with liberalism meant that nationalism had a wider scope.

7. Revolutions in France Germany central Europe and Italy. Causes/desires of the people, events, outcomes

France

severe economic problems began in 1846 brought hardship to the lower middle class workers and hazards. Members of the middle class wanted the right to vote. The government refused to change. The monarchy was overthrown in 1848 radical Republicans set up a government they wanted the leaders to be elected. All adult males could vote. Set up national workshops for the unemployed. This used up all their money. They were forced to close the unemployment workshops and that made workers go into the streets for days of bloody fighting with government forces. Thousands were killed and thousands were put in French prisons in Algeria in northern Africa. A new constitution ratified November 4, 1848 set up a Republic called the second Republic. And the president serve for four years. Elections held December 1848 Napoleon Bonaparte elected new French ruler.

Germany

people heard of the 1848 Revolution in France. Congress of Vienna in 1850 recognized 38 independent German states called the German Confederation. Of these Austria and Prussia were the two greatest powers. 1848 German rulers promised constitutions, a freak press, jury trials and other liberal reforms. In May 1848 in all German Parliament called the Frankfurt assembly met to make a parliamentary government and limited monarchy it also allowed for direct election of deputies to the parliament. German unit of Tatian was not achieved because Frederick William V of Prussia refused to accept the crown.

Central Europe

the Austrian Empire was a multinational state a collection of different people including Germans checks Hungarians Romanians Poles Serbians Ukrainians and Italians. Only the German-speaking Hapsburg dynasty held the empire together. The Germans worldly a quarter of the population but they lead in governing Austrian Empire. March 1848 demonstrations erupted in major cities in Vienna revolutionary forces took control of the capital and demanded a liberal constitution. The government gave Hungary its own legislature in response. The checks also one of their own government in Bohemia. Austrian officials made concessions but were determined to take control back the empire. In June 1848 Austrian military forces crush the check revels in Prague. By the end of October 1848 the revels in Vienna lost. With the help of a Russian army the Hungarian revolutionaries were subdued in 1849 the revolutions in the Austrian Empire failed.

Italy

the Congress of Vienna set up nine states in Italy. The states included the Kingdom of Piedmont in the North the to Sicily's Naples and Sicily and the Poppel states which were all part of the Austrian Empire. In 1848 of revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardi in the knee shall. Revolutionaries took up arms they wanted to create liberal constitutions and unify Italy. By 1849 the Austrians had reestablished control over major cities throughout Europe in 1848 popular revolt started up evils that led to liberal constitutions and Liberal governments. Moderate liberals and radical revolutionaries were divided over the goals and so conservative rule was reestablished.


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Outline page 434

Central and Eastern Europe the Old Order Central and Eastern Europe had a more conservative government then Western Europe. Germany the Austria Hungarian empire in Russia were less industrialized and education was not widely available it is easier for old ruling groups to continue to dominate

  1. Germany

    1. constitution auto Van Bismarck 1871 set up to house legislature. The lower house collected by all men who could vote

    2. Ministers of the government not responsible to Parliament but to the upper who controlled Armed Forces foreign-policy and bureaucracy.

    3. Prime Minister worked to keep Germany from becoming a democracy

    4. William II emperor from 1888 to 1918 Germany became strongest military and industrial power in Europe.

    5. Expansion of industry and cities came demands for democracy.

    6. Conservative forces try to deny the movement for democracy by supporting a strong foreign-policy.

    7. They believed expansion abroad would increase your profits and make people not want democratic reforms.

  2. Austro Hungarian empire

    1. monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867 Austria had a constitution with parliamentary system but in reality the Emperor Francis Joseph ignored the system.

    2. Francis Joseph appointed and dismissed ministers and laws when the parliament was not in session

    3. ethnic groups fought the German minority governed Austria but was threatened by this checks the polls and other Slavic groups within the empire

    4. unlike Austria-Hungary had a Parliament that worked it was controlled by land owners who dominated the peasants and the ethnic groups

  3. Russia

    1. Nicholas the second began his rule in 1894 wanting absolute power of the czars

    2. 1900 Russia became the fourth largest producer of steel. Industrialization brought factories a working class and pitiful working and living conditions.

    3. Socialist parties developed including the Marxist social Democratic Party but government repression force them underground

    4. People weren't happy and opposed the regime.

    5. January 22, 1905 workers went to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present their grievances

    6. Troops opened fire on the peaceful demonstration killing hundreds called bloody Sunday

    7. After bloody Sunday workers throughout Russia called for strikes

    8. Nicholas the second was forced to grant civil liberties and create a legislative assembly called the Duma by 1907 Nicholas the second had taken most of the power away from the Duma and he again ruled Russia

Textbook 522-525

1. Who are the members of the triple alliance in 1882? Who are the members of the triple entente in 1907?

Europe's great powers had been divided into two loose alliances Germany Austria – hungry, in Italy formed the triple alliance in 1882

France, Great Britain, Russia created the triple entente in 1907

Between 1890 and 1914 European armies doubled in size due to militarization and conscription: mass armies grew after 1900. Large armies made it obvious that if war came it would be destructive. Conscription means a military draft as a regular practice European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914. Militaryism is the aggressive preparation for war.

What issue caused friction between Serbia – Russia and Austria – hungry?

Serbia was determined to become a large independent state and that angered Austria/hungry and started hostilities. Serbia supported Russia in 1914 and wanted an independent Slavic state in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary was determined to prevent Serbia from having that.

Details about Archduke Francis including his trip to Sarajevo. Identify Gavrilo Princip

on June 24, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand Herod of the throne of Austria/hungry and his wife Sophia visited Sarajevo Bosnia there was an assassination attempt in later in the day they were successfully assassinated by Gavrilo Princip he was a 19-year-old Bosnian from Serbia and was a member of the Black hand Serbian terrorist organization that wide Bosnia to be free of Austria Hungary.

Why did Austria – hungry want to attack Serbia? What was the danger of attacking Serbia? What did Germany's blank check pressure Austria – hungry?

The Austrian Hungarian government did not know if Serbia assassinated in Archduke but they didn't care. They feared Russia would intervene on Serbia's behalf so the asked for the backing of German Allies. Emperor William II of Germany gave Austria-Hungary a blank check promising Germany's full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria-Hungary on July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

What is mobilization? Mobilization is the process of assembling troops and supplies for war. In 1914 mobilization was considered an act of war.

Originally the Czar Nicholas the second ordered partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary but Russian plans only accounted for full mobilization against both Germany and Austria Hungary. Unfortunately the czar ordered a full mobilization knowing Germany would consider this an act of war.

Germany's Schlieffen planned named after General Alfred von Schlieffen. Called for a two front war with France and Russia because they had formed a military alliance in 1894. Therefore after war was declared on Russia on August 1, 1914 Germany also declared war on France on August 3, 1914.

In order to complete their plan of attack Germany had to enter France via Belgium dust on August 4, 1914 Great Britain also declared war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality.