Moguls Textbook Pages 262-267
1Discuss the rise of the Moguls in India. (Who were the Moguls, who was their leader, generally where did they come from, when, how did they get (physically) into India, and where was the center of their administration in India?) .
The Mongols came from the mountainous region north of the Indus River Valley. The founder was Babur. He started in Kabul in 1504 and 13 years later came into India. He captured Delhi and established his power in the plains of North India.
2Who was Akbar, what did he do, and how was he able to do it?
Akbar was 14 when he took the throne. He was intelligent, and by 1605 he had brought Mogul rule to most of India. He used heavy artillery and was able to overpower the stone fortresses of the rivals. He was also a successful negotiator.
3What were some keys to Akbar’s successful rule? (How was he able to maintain control of his conquered territory?)
He was successful because he was a good negotiator. He was a Muslim. But he adopted a policy of religious tolerance. He tolerated Hindu practices. He took a Hindu princess as one of his wives. Many of the low ranking officials and his government were Hindus. He was a fair leader
4Who were the zamindars? Why was the zamindar system used and what was the effect?
The zamindars were local officials that were lower ranking officials of local rule. They kept a portion of taxes paid by peasants, and they were expected to give the rest to the central government. They have considerable power in their local districts. All the Indian peasants were treated fairly and justly, and trade and manufacturing flourished.
5Why did Mogul rule decline? What happened under the rule of Aurangzeb that made Indians dislike him as a ruler? (There are at least 4 but as many as 6 important items/changes/practices that upset Indians during this period).
Mogul rule declined, after Akbar died and he was succeeded by his son. He began listening to his Persian born wife, and she only wanted to use her authority to enrich her own family. He had growing domestic problems, including a nearly empty treasury, his military campaigns were expensive, expensive building projects put a heavy strain on finances and he had to raise taxes, the peasants were even more poor. As a result of these taxes, most of his people lived in poverty, he was so sick in the 1650s many people thought he died, this led to a struggle for power among his sons, infighting with his sons. The son Aurangzeb won and he led his army into constant warfare. He was religiously intolerant and he made his subjectsh ate him. He did not let the Hindus have their customs, he put a stop to illegal taxes, he forbid gambling, he forbid drinking. He made everyone become Muslim, he didn't allow the locals to build Hindu temples.
6What was the role of women in India during the Mogul era?
During the early leaders, including Bamber and Akbar women had an active role in tribal society. Mogul rulers relied on women for political advice women from aristocratic families receive salaries and were allowed to own land. Eventually, Islamic law was adopted by the Hindus and isolated women. There is also child marriage that was very common.
7What influences on Indian culture did the Moguls have?
The restrictions on women under Islamic law were adopted by Hindus like isolating women. There was also the new and beautiful architectural style, like the Taj Mahal. There were also major achievement in art. The painters had that Akbar style combined Persian with Indian motifs
8The British had established a number of trading forts in India by the middle of what century? What trade pattern emerged? (what goods were traded and where?)
By 1650 British trading ports have been established in India. British ships carried Indian made cotton goods to the East Indies where they were treated for spices. The British were so successful, the French established their own forts.
9Who did the British fight for control of Indian trade and what “company” came to control Indian trade?
The East India Company of England was a private company that acted on behalf of the British Crown, and thought any force that threatened the company's power.
10Who was Robert Clive? What happened at Fort William (Calcutta) in 1756? How did he retaliate? What were the spoils of victory?
Robert Clive was the chief representative of the India of the East India Company. Clive restricted the French to the Fort at Pondicherry and fought the French. The Indian ruler of single had attacked Fort William in 1756. He imprisoned the British in the black hole of Calcutta, an underground prison and because of the heat. Only 23 people out of 146, survived. Clive also consolidated British control in Bengal. In 1757 Clive led a British force to victory over the Mogul led army 10 times its size in Bengal. As part of the spoils of victory. The Mogul court gave the East India Company the power to collect taxes from lands in and around Calcutta.