The French Revolution And Napoleon pg 343-347
From Estates General to National Assembly
The third estate claim the right to have its votes count as much as those of the first and second estates and they also wanted clergy and nobility to pay a fair share of taxes too.
- 1st and 2nd estate had 300 representatives the 3rd estate had 600 reps.
- Each estate has 1 vote so 1st and 2nd estate could outvote the 3rd. The 1st and 2nd estates had 2 to 1 votes over the 3rd estate.
- 3rd estate wanted each deputy to have 1 vote so 3rd estate would have majority vote
- the king hated this new idea
Tennis Court Oath was when the third estate declared it would draft a constitution and the doors were locked on them so they moved to an indoor tennis court.
- Louis XVI was going to use force against the third estate
- The price of bread reached record highs the people were hungry and angry at the King.
- The rebels took over a prison called a Bastille in Paris which was abandoned to the rebels.
- Members of the French guard helped them until the prison warden surrendered
- King said it’s a revolt his duke said no it’s a revolution
The King Concedes
- The king's authority had collapsed in Paris
- All over France revolts were breaking out people have had it with the taxes and the entire land holding system and they went into action.
- Peasant rebellions vast panic were known as The Great Fear.
- Peasants heard that foreign armies were coming to fight them and they reacted by breaking into houses of the Lords and destroying the records of their obligations.
- The third estate claim the right to have its votes count as much as those of the first and second estates and they also wanted clergy and nobility to pay a fair share of taxes too.
End of the Old Regime
Declaration of the Rights of Man
- August 4, 1789 national assembly abolished all legal privileges of the nobles and clergy
the national assembly adopted the declaration of the rights of Man and the Citizen.
- Inspired by the English Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of Independence the charter of basic liberties were liberty, prosperity, security and resistance to oppression.
- The document reflected enlightenment and proclaimed all men were free and equal before the law and that appointment to public office should be based on talent.
- The document said that no group should be exempt from taxation and gave freedom of speech and of the press.
- The declaration raised important issues about women some believe they shouldn't have the same rights as men.
The King Concedes
- Louis XVI refused to accept the decree.
- Thousands of Parisian women marched to his house and told them their children were starving that forced the king to accept the new decrease
- The crowd asked the King and his family to come to Paris to show support for the national assembly.
- The king came and brought wagonload of flour once he got there they were virtual prisoners in Paris
- the king brought wagons of flour so they called himthe “Baker’ and his wife was the bakers wife
- Under the old regime the church had been an important part of the social and political system.
- The new government thought it had to reform the church too.
- By seizing and selling off church land the national assembly made money.
The church was brought under the control of the state formally under a law called the Civic Constitution of the Clergy.
- Bishops and priests were elected by the people not appointed by the Pope in the church hierarchy.
- The state would pay the salaries of the bishops and priests.
- Because of the changes many Catholics became enemies of the revolution.
New Constitution and New Fears
- The Constitution of 1791 said that there would be a limited monarchy.
- There was a King but a legislative assembly would make the laws.
- At first only men called “active” citizens over 25 who paid a certain amount of taxes could vote all others were considered passive citizens with equal rights but no vote.
- The new body was designed to be conservative.
- The method of choosing its 745 deputies meant that only wealthier people would serve.
- Local governments are put in charge of taxation.
- The new government did not have universal support they were radicals in economically disadvantaged people who wanted more reforms.
The King hated the new government and wanted his absolute power back.
- In 1791 the Royal family tried to escape France in disguise.
- They were caught and brought back to Paris
- Legislative assemblu met Oct 1791 ammended the constitution to allow for trying the king if he turned against the nation
War with Austria
- Some European leaders began to fear that the revolution would spread to their countries too.
- Austria and Prussia threatened to use force to restore Louis XVI to for power again.
- The legislative assembly decided to strike first acquiring Warren Austria in 1792.
- France fared badly in the initial fighting.
Rise of the Paris Commune
- In 1792 citizens demonstrated to protest food shortages and defeat in the war.
- Paris radicals declared themselves commune, a popular run city Council, and organized an attack on the Royal Palace and legislative assembly.
- The French Revolution entered a radical and violent stage.
- Members of the Paris commune took the King captive and forced the legislative assembly to suspend the monarchy and call for a national convention because they wanted more radical change.
- They wanted all adult males to have the right to vote
- The commune set themselves apart by wearing long trousers not knee-length ones of the nobles.
- Economic conditions showed little improvement and they were worried about foreign countries reestablishing the King
- Declaration of the Rights of Man