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A New German Offensive

  1. What did German Commander E Ludendorff plan? One final grand offensive in the West to break the military stalemate

    1. When? March 1918

    2. Where? Within 50 miles of Paris by April

    3. Who was involved (both sides)? Germans stopped there advanced at the second Battle of the Marne on July 18. French Moroccan and American troops 140,000 of them had just arrived supported by hundreds of tanks. On August 8 the forces met at the second Battle of Somme Ludendorff said August 8 was the black date of the German Army in the history of the war he admitted his gamble had failed

    4. Why? Germany was running low on provisions reserves of soldiers were nearly depleted and the German homefront was tired of the war so they made one last big attack

    5. Outcome? 1 million American troops poured into France and the Allies began an advance toward Germany on September 29, 1918 general Ludendorff told German leaders at the war was lost.

  2. Compare the maps on page 543, what happened to Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia after the war? Germany was cut up into Poland in part of Czechoslovakia was turned from part of the Austria-Hungary alliance and the Soviet Union lost a lot of land and created Lithuania and Prussia. Romania also became bigger

Collapse and Armistice

  1. What happened with the collapse and armistice of Germany? Germany found the Allies were unwilling to make peace with the type of government that they had the autocratic imperial government of Germany had to go.

    1. When? November 3, 1918 councils of workers and soldiers formed and took over civilian and military offices

    2. What happened to the German Empire? Emperor William II left the country on November 9 the social Democrats under Frederick Ebert announced the creation of the Democratic Republic. November 11, 1918 the new German government signed an armistice.

    3. What even caused the collapse of the German war effort? It was too late for reforms for a liberal government in the German people were tired and angry

    4. How were the people of Germany feeling at the end of the war? The German people were feeling tired and angry

    5. Define armistice. A truce an agreement to end the fighting


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The Peace Settlements

  1. The Treaty of Versailles was called in January 1919 to create just and lasting peace for the world.

Wilson’s Proposals

  1. The U.S. President _____Woodrow Wilson _____ outlined his blueprint for peace called? 14 points

  2. What did this “blueprint” call for? 14 points was would whirl Wilson's basis for peace settlement he wanted to reduce military forces and weapons and the right of each people to have their own nation

The Paris Peace Conference

  1. According to the textbook, British Prime Minister _________ David Lloyd George ______ was motivated by what and wanted what from the Peace Treaty? Was elected in December 1918 in his platform was simple he wanted to make the Germans pay for the dreadful war.

  2. According to the textbook, French Prime Minister _____Georges Clemenceau____ was motivated by what and wanted what from the Peace Treaty? France's approach was guided by its desire for national security. French people have suffered the most from German aggression. The French desired revenge and security against future German attacks. He wanted Germany stripped of all weapons and reparations payments to be made to cover the cost of war. And a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany

The Treaty of Versailles

  1. The War Guilt Clause required reparations from Germany. Define reparations. What do reparations entail in this case? Reparations are German payments to cover the cost of the war. Article 231 was called the war guilt clause which declared that Germany and Austria were responsible for starting the war the treaty ordered Germany to pay reparations for all the damages that the Allied governments and the people had sustained as a result of the war

  2. What were the military and territorial provisions of the treaty that impacted Germany? France gave up their wish for a separate Rhineland and instead accepted a defensive alliance with Great Britain and the United States. Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 men cut back its Navy and eliminate its Air Force. Alsace and Lorraine were taken by the Germanys from France were returned in sections of Eastern Germany were awarded to and a new Polish state.

Legacies of the War

  1. Briefly and broadly, what were the complications of self-determination in creating new nations in Europe? The mixtures of people in Eastern Europe made it impossible to draw boundaries along ethnic lines. Compromises had to be made to satisfy the national interests of the victors. France has lost Russia as its major ally on Germany's eastern border in France wanted to expand Poland Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia and Romania is much as possible. Then those countries could serve as barriers against Germany in communist Russia. Almost every Eastern European state was left with ethnic minorities. The problem of ethnic minorities within nations would lead to many later conflicts.

  2. Briefly and broadly, what went wrong in creating new nations outside of Europe? The Ottoman Empire was broken up the peace settlement. To gain air support against the Ottoman Turks during the war the Western allies promised to recognize the independence of Arab states in the Ottoman Empire. Once the war was over the Western nations changed her mind France took control of Lebanon and Syria and Britain received Iraq and Palestine. These acquisitions were called mandates.

  3. Briefly and broadly, what was an impact of Total War? World War I shattered the liberal rational society that existed in and late 19th and early 20th century Europe 10 million people died incredible destruction caused by the war undermined the idea of progress. Entire populations Huppert to dissipate it in devastating slaughter. The power of governments over the lives of their citizens increased freedom of the press and speech were limited in the name of national security World War I made the practice of strong central Paris a way of life.