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The Road to War

  • August 1914 Austria-Hungary invaded a small Balkan nation of Serbia
  • the United States didn't believe the war in Europe had anything to do with them and World War I went on without the United States for 2 1/2 years
  • United States entered the war April 1917
  • World War I started because of a bunch of small things

the collapse of European peace

  • Triple entente France Russia Britain
  • triple alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Empire, Italy
  • the real war was between Great Britain and Germany called Anglo-German rivalry
  • Great Britain was the world's most powerful colonial and commercial nation
  • Germany wanted to expand its empire and at least be as powerful as Great Britain
  • June 28, 1914 Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated while visiting Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia which was then owned by Austria-Hungary
  • the Archduke's assassin was a Serbian nationalist
  • Germany supported Austria-Hungary when they attacked Serbia
  • Serbia asked Russia to help them defend themselves
  • Germany declared war on both Russia and France and invaded Belgium
  • Germany was on their way to go across the French border
  • August 4 Great Britain who was an ally of France declared war on Germany
  • by 1915 almost all of Europe and part of Asia was in the war
  • Manifest destiny in the 1840s let us out West.
  • 1846 because of the Mexican-American war we annexed California and other western territories.
  • Americans pushed aside the Native Americans because they wanted their land.
  • In the early days America had no navy so oversea conquest was out of their reach leaving them the surrounding areas around the United States.
  • United States took Puerto Rico Cuba and the Philippines due to their navy.
  • Pres. Wilson wanted to remain neutral in 1914 some sympathize with Germany because they hated Britain. Some sympathize with Britain. The Irish hated Britain. President Wilson sympathized with Britain
  • propaganda and exaggerated atrocities in Belgium and France were exaggerated by British propagandist
  • Economics and trade made the US want to get involved- British had a naval blockade on Germany so the US have the right to trade with Germany we hardly ever treated with central powers but Britain France Italy and Russia we traded with a lot so we continue to trade with Britain and accepted their blockade.
  • Trade became a big deal during the war because Britain and France ordered a lot more things after 1914 from the United States called war orders
  • America accepted the blockade of Germany and continued treating with Britain
  • by 1915 the United States transformed from a neutral power to one of the allies
  • Germans used submarines in early 1915 because they were unable to challenge the British domination on top of the ocean surface in boats so they went underwater and Americans thought that was barbaric
  • Germans sunk passenger liner that had Americans on board May 7, 1915 the boat was calledLusitania and killed 1198 people there were 128 Americans killed later you find out that they had weapons on board
  • Pres. Wilson told Germany not to fire on neutral ships Germany agreed
  • United States Pres. Wilson asked that Germany promised not to fire on the ships because American citizens want to travel on nonmilitary vessels and ships
  • 1916 the allies were arming merchant ships to sink submarines so Germany said it would fire on those vessels without warning
  • Germany attacked the unarmed French steamer named Sussex and injured American passengers

Preparedness versus pacifism

  • 1916 Pres. Wilson still hadn't committed the United States to join the war
  • 1916 American domestic policy and politics Wilson was running for reelection for president and there were lots of Americans who didn't want to become part of the war
  • Wilson at first was on the side of anti-prepared forces saying that we did not need to build up our military
  • Wilson changed his mind in the fall of 1915 and endorsed a proposal for a large and rapid increase in the nation's military by the middle of summer it 1916 the US was getting ready for conflict
  • the piece keepers in United States had a lot of political strength at the Democratic convention in 1916 people talked about Wilson's accomplishments with the chant “what did we do what did we do we didn't go to war we didn't go to war”
  • that speech helped produce one of the most prominent slogans of Wilson's reelection campaign which was “he kept us out of war”
  • the Republican candidate a progressive New York Gov. Charles Evans Hughes was running against him for president and he suggested that Mr. Hughes would bring the country into a war
  • the election was very close there were fewer than 600,000 popular votes and 23 elect Worrall votes in between the two candidates and Wilson won reelection and the Democrats kept a hold of control of Congress in the election

A war for democracy

  • Pres. Wilson said there were no material aims in the conflict he said the nation was committed to using the war to construct a new world order based on progressive ideas
  • January 1917 presented a plan for postwar order where the United States would help maintain peace with a league of nations “peace without victory”believed it was goals worth fighting for
  • January 1917 the Germans started unrestricted warfare on American and allied ships
  • January Germany went across the enemy lines into France
  • February 25, 1917 Britain gave Pres. Wilson the telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman hero to the government of Mexico said he would give back part of Texas and the American Southwest to Mexico if the Mexicans fought with Germany
  • March 1917 a revolution in Russia started a new Republican government so now the United States would not be on the same side as a dictatorship or czar
  • the Russian old government before the new Republican government was called a despotic monarchy
  • April German submarines torpedoed three American ships Wilson went before a joint session of Congress and asked for war
  • April 6, 1917 world war one was now okay by Congress the declaration of war finally passed 50 representatives and six senators voted against it

War without Stint

  • the Americans wanted American warships to help bring supplies and put out in a tie submarine mines in the North Sea
  • Americans thought providing naval assistance alone would be enough they were wrong they need ground troops
  • armies on both sides in Europe were exhausted by the time Woodrow Wilson declared war
  • Woodrow Wilson called on the United States to wage war “without stint or limit”
  • American involvement had its most immediate effect on the conflict at sea
  • spring 1917 Great Britain had many losses from attacks by German submarines
  • one of every four ships sailing from British ports never returned
  • a fleet of American destroyers aided the British Navy attacking the U-boats which are submarines
  • U-boats are submarines
  • American warships escorted merchant vessels cross the Atlantic
  • allied ships had 900,000 tons in April sunk and by December did figure had dropped to 350,000 by October 1918 it declined to hundred and 12,000
  • but Americans were still going to have to fight a ground war of war at sea was not enough
  • 1918 Russia withdrew from the war altogether because of the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917 which ended the Republican government created the previous March
  • the Bolshevik government was communist
  • Teddy Roosevelt wanted to lead troops like he did in the Spanish-American war and he urged voluntary recruitment process
  • Pres. Wilson decided we needed a national draft to provide the most amount of men
  • the selective service act is the draft 3 million men into the Army another 2 million went to the other armed services
  • spring 1918 significant number of American troops available for battle eight months later the wars over November 11, 1918 war over
  • American forces in combat was brief but intense
  • spring 1918 significant number of American troops available for battle
  • US troops under the command of Gen. John J Pershing
  • American troops aided the French near Paris
  • the American expeditionary force or ATF helped in France
  • the German stopped advancing July 18
  • September 26 American fighting force of over 1 million soldiers advanced against the Germans in theArgonne forest a 200 mile attack that lasted seven weeks
  • end of October pushed Germans back towards their own border and cut the enemy supply line to the front lines
  • Germany started to look for arm assist which is an immediate cease-fire because they were afraid that allies were going to invade Germany
  • November 11, 1918 more than four years after it started the great war stopped

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Organizing the Economy for War

  • By the time the war ended the federal government spent 32 billion for expenses related to the conflict
  • the entire federal budget did not exceed 1 billion before 1915
  • the United States gross national product was 35 billion in 1910
  • US raised money two ways first it sold liberty bonds which are loans from the American people the United States raised 23 billion selling bonds the second way we made money was by taxes. New taxes brought in 10 billion some were levees on excess profits of corporations and by steeply graduated income and inheritance taxes that rose as high as 70% in some brackets
  • 1916 Wilson established the Council of national defense with members of his cabinet and the civilian advisory commission would set up local defense councils in every state
  • rest on large-scale disbursal of powers to local communities but that proved unworkable the Council of national defense urged a more centralized approach
  • war boards came next one did transportation one railroads etc.
  • the boards succeeded in meeting essential war needs without paralyzing the domestic economy
  • Herbert Hoover handled the food board
  • war industries Board W I B agency created July 1917 to coordinate government purchases of military supplies it was run by Wall Street man Bernard Baruch
  • the war industries Board W I B wielded great power it set prices for consumer goods that they produced when materials were scarce they decided who got what
  • the WIB plagued by mismanagement and inefficiency
  • the nation's ability to meet its war needs were about America having too many resources and productive capacities
  • WIB businessmen called themselves the dollar year men who took paid leave from their corporate jobs and work for the government for a token salary sometimes only a dollar
  • the government was working to let the private sector make money in business through a beneficial alliance with the government
  • Link between public and private business extended to labor
  • the national war labor Board established April 1918 mediated labor disputes
  • it pressured businesses to give workers eight hour days and minimal living standards plus equal pay for women doing equal jobs and recognize the right of unions to organize and bargain collectively
  • in return it insisted that workers never strike and that employers do not lock out workers
  • membership and labor unions increased by 1.5 million between 1917 and 1919
  • Hoover efficiently organized food suppliesMcAdoo had success in establishing state control of railroads
  • some people thought it went so well they wanted to continue wartime experiments between public and private sectors when it was peacetime

The Search for Social Unity

  • The idea of unity dream of progresses
  • war United people in a great cause US started big propaganda campaign to try to drum up support for the war
  • committee on Public information CPI run by George Creel distributed 75 million pieces of printed material and controlled information for newspaper and magazines told newspapers to self censorship when reporting war news
  • CPI put in ads for neighbors to turn in each other if they're disloyal
  • espionage act of 1917 gave the government tools to combat spying sabotage or obstruction of the war effort
  • sabotage act April 20
  • sedation act of May 16
  • both of these bills expanded the meaning of the espionage act to make illegal any public expression of opposition to the war and practice they allowed officials to prosecute anybody who criticize the president with the government
  • they went after anti-capitalist groups and the Socialist party, the industrial workers of the world IWW
  • socialist never drop their opposition to the war
  • Eugene Debs the leader of the Socialist party was an opponent of the war and he was sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1918 he was released in 1921 when Pres. warring G Harding pardoned him
  • big Bill Haywood and members of the IWW were prosecuted Haywood went to the Soviet Union to avoid going to prison
  • 11,500 people were arrested in 1918 for the crime of criticizing the government
  • mobs beat up people who win against the war
  • mobs went after immigrants mostly Irish because they hate the British and the Jewish population because they were against Russian anti-somatic policies
  • the biggest target of American abuse was German American community, people were allowed to play German songs and music or speak German language in schools Germans fired from jobs in war industries so they wouldn't sabotage the efforts

Search for New World Order

  • Woodrow Wilson led the nation into war had a vision of a new world called Wilsonian internationalism
  • January 8, 1918 president Wilson went before Congress the 14 points specific recommendations for postwar
  • eight specific for adjusting postwar boundaries and establishing new nations to replace Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires
  • believed that people have the right to self determination
  • set of five general principles to govern international conduct in the future including freedom of the sea, open covenants instead of secret treaties, reduction in arming mints, free-trade and impartial mediation of colonial claims
  • last 14 points is the league of Nations That the league of nations would help implement the new principles and territorial adjustments and resolve future problems
  • big flaw and Wilson's plan he had no way to decide national self-determination that he promised people
  • Wilson strongly progressive the world was capable of efficient government that the international community needed to accept certain basic principles of conduct and we can all live in peace
  • in Europe Allied powers wanted to resist Wilson
  • Britain and France suffered terrible losses and was very mad at Germany they didn't want to give them a generous piece David Lloyd George British Prime Minister campaigned for reelection in 1918 called for the execution of Kaiser Wilhelm the second of Germany
  • Wilson had problems at home and 1918 the war almost over Wilson told Americans to vote for Democrats in Congress so of course the people voted Republican and the Republicans captured minorities in both houses
  • economic troubles at home where the important factor in voting
  • Wilson went to Europe he was a savior to them creating a new world entered Paris on December 13, 1918 largest crowd in the history of France but the conference itself was bad for him
  • David George Prime Minister of Great Britain and
  • Georges Clemenceau president of France
  • Vittorio Orlando Prime Minister of Italy
  • Wilson was unable to win approval of many of the principles he wanted freedom of the seas Britain refused to even discuss, and open covenants the Paris meeting itself was closed in secret
  • national self-determination for all people also didn't happen
  • reparations or money that Germany has to pay back is where Wilson had a complete defeat the central powers of France and Britain insisted Germany pay back money far more than Germany could but Sorbs
  • the final mount of reparations was established in 1921
  • Wilson did create league of Nations January 25, 1919
  • Wilson thought that the league of nations would fix any problems that the Paris peace conference couldn't

The Ratification Battle

  • Wilson presented the treaty of Versailles in Europe on his next visit it was named after the Royal Palace outside Paris where the final negotiation sessions had taken place he presented it to the Senate on July 10, 1919
  • Western isolationist oppose the agreement and treaty
  • Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee who hated the president president Wilson he once said I never thought I could hate a man as I hate Wilson
  • public sentiment favored the ratification
  • Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts added amendments limiting American obligations to the league of Nations
  • president Wilson refused because the he thought the US had a moral obligation
  • president will someone across the country and spoke publicly to try to get ratification of the Treaty of her silence
  • sometimes he spoke four times a day traveling by train
  • September 25, 1919 he collapsed
  • president rushed back to Washington he had a major stroke for weeks he couldn't do anything
  • Foreign Relations Committee sent the treaty to the Senate recommending 50 amendments and reservations and Wilson refused to consider any of them
  • November 19, 1919 42 Democrats joined 13 Republicans reject the amended treaty
  • the Senate voted on the original version without all of the amendments 38 senators all but one were a Democrat voted to approve it and 55 voted no
  • because Wilson wouldn't yield they wouldn't vote to approve it in the U.S. Senate

Triple entente France Russia Britain

triple alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Empire, Italy

So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to the 'Great War' - a name that had been touted even before the coming of the conflict.

  • Austria-Hungary, unsatisfied with Serbia's response to her ultimatum (which in the event was almost entirely placatory: however her jibbing over a couple of minor clauses gave Austria-Hungary her sought-after cue) declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914.
  • Russia, bound by treaty to Serbia, announced mobilisation of its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete.
  • Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August.
  • France, bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on 3 August. Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route.
  • Britain, allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a "moral obligation" upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August. Her reason for entering the conflict lay in another direction: she was obligated to defend neutral Belgium by the terms of a 75-year old treaty. With Germany's invasion of Belgium on 4 August, and the Belgian King's appeal to Britain for assistance, Britain committed herself to Belgium's defence later that day. Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary.
  • With Britain's entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and included Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa.
  • United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping (which was in any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Britain and France) - forced the U.S. to finally enter the war on 6 April 1917.
  • Japan, honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.
  • Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both. In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality. The following year, in May 1915, she finallyjoined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.