• 1786 Shays rebellion, John Jay’s Treaty with Spain, trade slowing, Virginia tried to start a national government
  • Virginia -wanted an interstate convention to discuss uniform regulation of commerce and trade
  • Virginia wanted to meet in Annapolis September 1786 with other states about trade
  • New York sent Alexander Hamilton, Virginia sent James Madison, New Jersey came
  • the Annapolis meeting in 1786 some people wanted to change the articles of Confederation
  • Philadelphia Statehouse May 25, 1787 a general convention in Philadelphia with 26 men only Rhode Island didn’t participate
  • the Philadelphia convention George Washington was chosen president of the convention, Benjamin Franklin was there to Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry didn’t come because they smelled a rat and the whole proceedings
  • they met because of economic worries, they were worried that parliamentary taxation from England would see their trade ruined and their property in danger
  • they wanted to settle the West and wanted to secure a national domain
  • they had a selfish interest in bringing about a public good
  • patriotism led Americans to invest in public securities during wartime so it was personal economic interests involved
  • Roger Sherman believed that the national legislature should be elected by the state legislature not by popular vote of the normal people because he wanted to reduce the popular influence in the new government to a minimum
  • he didn’t want to give president veto power over laws because one man shouldn’t have so much power
  • the rest of the group voted that the election of the House of Representatives by a vote of the people
  • the Articles of Confederation gave small states a lot of power
  • the new states in America’s West shouldn’t be discriminated against
  • they didn’t want to make an executive or Senate branch of government with lifelong terms they wanted frequent elections
  • the convention had common principles learned in 20 years of British tyranny
  • the convention had a lot of compromises
  • they all worried that they union of the United States would go away MSA had a national government
  • Spain wanted the southwest of the United States
  • England wanted the rest of the United States
  • some people wanted Congress to have all the power that it was not a representative body because the members were not elected directly by the people
  • the cardinal principle of the whole revolution was that the powers of taxation and legislation or laws had to be elected directly by the people
  • in Philadelphia they came up with the safeguards so no one part of government would be more powerful than another
  • Alexander Hamilton and John Dickinson wanted a constitutional monarchy form of government

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  • other people wanted a Republican government with the quality like talked about in the declaration of independence
  • Elbridge Gerry said that democracy was the worst of political evils and he believed that the United States should remain a republic
  • the United States Constitution was a series of resolutions written by Edmund Randolph and James Madison
  • the United States Constitution resolutions provide for a national executive, a national judiciary, and the bicameral national legislature. The lower house voted by the people and represented in both houses
  • votes were based on population or the amount of taxation.
  • Large and small states had equal weight in the government before with the Articles of Confederation but the new Constitution did not give them equal power anymore they wanted equal representation in the upper house of the legislature if not in the lower
  • people in the larger states wanted all men to be equal because if men were represented equally in the government the large states would have more representatives in the small states
  • the Declaration of Independence said that all men not all states are equal James Wilson said it is for men not for states that we are forming a government
  • the small states wanted the new states that were forming in the West have equal power because it would reduce the power of the larger states on the East Coast
  • the Great Compromise was the feature of the principal that. Should be a quality for states in the Senate and for men and the House of Representatives by having a census of the country so they could see how many people lived on each state and that was the basis of representation in the lower house one representative for every 40,000 people so new states would be sure they had representation in the same scale as the old states
  • there was a conflict between North and South neither want the other to be more dominant the northern states had a majority of free population they were sharply divided about slavery the South was worried that the North would take over a way slavery
  • slavery violated the idea of the quality but no one talked about abolition of slavery because they were afraid that the South would leave the convention
  • summer of 1787 they made population the sole basis of representation in the lower house it gave white southerners an extra share in the government the South was happy because 3/5 of slaves any state would be included as people so the free population of the state received a bonus and political power because of their slaves
  • Slaves were 3/5 of a human when they voted
  • northern members aggressively spoke against slavery and the slave trade and the Fed that the national government if they were given the right they would prohibit the slave trade on moral grounds
  • slavery agreement: an agreement was reached where the government was not to stop the slave trade before the year 1808 but it could impose a tax of no more than $10 per slave imported and it also agreed that fugitive slaves escaping to freedom and different states should be returned to their owners
  • the North agreed that the only way the South would stay part of a national government is if they agreed to this and they felt it was worth the price to keep the South in the union
  • the state government had a lot of power and the nationalist didn’t like that because the central government was not given the power to veto state laws
  • the House of Representatives was elected by the people and the manner to choose senators and presidential electors was left to the state legislatures
  • the Constitution and the laws and treaties made under it were supreme law of the land in forcible and state and national courts
  • the states were for bidden to allow certain types of legislation like bills of attainder, custom duties, paper money laws and laws impairing the obligation of contracts
  • the national government was protected from the legislature by an executive with veto power and a judiciary with tenure during good behavior
  • they voted that the Constitution should be approved or rejected by specially elected conventions in every state in order to prevent two or three states from frustrating the union nine states was to put the Constitution and operation among the nine states that ratified it
  • Edmund Randolph could not sign the Constitution he didn’t believe in it even though he introduced the resolution on which it was based
  • most of the members thought it was as good as it could be and better than the existing government
  • Benjamin Franklin thought that the sun carved on the back of the chair is a rising sun not a setting sun