Industrial Revolution Guided Reading, pp. 378–385
1 How did the economy of Europe change during the industrial revolution? Great Britain was the worlds first industrial nation and the richest nation by the mid-19th century. It produced one half of the world’s coal and manufactured goods. The economy was based on manufactured goods not on farming anymore.
2 What other changes occurred during the Industrial Revolution? Before the Industrial Revolution agricultural work on farms was how most people lived. Most people lived in rural areas and single workers produced an entire product. After the Industrial Revolution workers were placed in factories and cottage industries declined and almost disappeared. Workers moved from the country to the city and conditions were very hard at the factories. When workers used to work on the farms there was a lot of activity for a little while and then periods of rest but in the factory you had to work all the time.
3 Why did the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain? It began in Great Britain because of an agrarian revolution that changed agricultural practices. Farmland expanded, there was good weather, improved transportation, and new crops increase the food supply,Britain had a ready supply of money to invest in machines,factories and Britain had plentiful natural resources and a supply of markets gave British manufactures a ready outlet for their goods.
4 What industry did it begin in? Why? Because of the enclosure laws farming practices were changed and there was an increase food supply with lower prices using less labor. The first big industry after farming was cotton production because there was a growing demand for cotton cloth in Britain’s many marketplaces. Britain had a vast colonial empire and the British ships could transport goods anywhere in the world.
5 Explain the term cottage industry: Cottage industry is a production method where individuals spun thread and wove cloth in rural cottages. Cottage industry is where you make and create something inside your home, or your cottage, to sell on a small scale.
6 What technological changes resulted from the Industrial Revolution? There were changes in cotton production with the flying shuttle, the spinning Jenny and the spinning of thread through a water powered loom. New processes using coal transformed the iron industry. Higher quality iron was used to build new machines especially trains. More efficient railroads and trains that ran on top of the rails instead of some contracts.
7 How did the factory system change the lives of workers? Workers moved to cities to work in factories causing overcrowding and filthy conditions with too much growth. Factory work required long hours under hard conditions and there was large-scale child labor. Women and children made a lot less money. The work was boring because they did one small task over and over.
8 How did government encourage the development of industry? Governments encouraged industrialization by providing funds to build roads canals and railroads.
9 What was the impact of the industrial revolution in the United States? Before the Industrial Revolution six out of every seven Americans were farmers and no city had more than 100,000 people. After the Industrial Revolution there were nine cities that had over 100,000 people and only 50% of American workers were farmers.
10 What factors caused the European population to double between 1750 in 1850? The population doubled because death rates declined because people were better fed and more resistant to disease.
11 Explain why Ireland’s population decline during the 19th century? Almost 1,000,000 people died during the Irish potato famine. Poverty led another million to move to America. Many other people moved looking for work to cities away from Ireland.
12 Which people made up the industrial middle class and what qualities did they have? The new industrial middle class was made up of people who built factories, bought machines and developed markets. They all had initiative, vision, ambition and greed.
13 How did the factory act of 1833 improve the working conditions for children? The act of 1833 meant that child labor was limited. Children could now work limited hours and they perform low-paying jobs that could be done in the home with the women and only works sometimes in the factory.
14 What is socialism and what is its goal? Socialism is when the government controls some means of production like factories and utilities and its goals were everyone’s needs would be met and would allow wealth to be distributed more equitably to everyone.