1) What was true of the physical environment of the Great Plains (vast American plain)? The soil is rich, the weather is very very cold or very hot, there are no trees or mountains, grasshoppers eat crops, drought, tornadoes.

2) What was true of the European-Americans who came as settlers? 1862 Homestead act if you pay $10 you can have 160 acres of land, German Swedish and Norwegian immigrants, 250,000 widows and women

3) What technologies made settling the Plains more profitable and how does this affect the farm economy? John Deere’s plow makes the soil fallaway, Cyrus McCormick’s reaper that cuts and harvests grain. The Industrial Revolution was now and farming too. McCormick starts installment buying paint a little bit at a time for goods, he has experts that can fix your machine when it breaks and experts that can teach you how to use it. Only big farm survived very few individual farmers left. They destroyed the land with wasteful farming and left the land barren so nothing would ever grow in it again.

4) What divisions were there between ranchers, farmers and Native Americans in terms of their use of land? Ranchers and farmers didn’t like each other because the farmers put barbed wire fences around their property and the ranchers had to go around. The Plains Indians were hunters. Hunters needed the land without the fences so Buffalo and dear would graze so they could kill them. Farmers needed fences so the Buffalo and dear would eat their crops

5) What are major incidents and personalities in the Indian Wars? After the Civil War there are some soldiers that get really good at killing people and so they decide to move out West and kill all the Buffalo and then they kill all the Indians.

1875 all plains Indians had to be in a reservation by law.
Civil war Union Gen. Philip Sheridan says the only good Indian is a dead Indian
William Sherman talks about a final solution to the Indian problem which means killing them all if they don’t go on reservations
John Pope says Sioux Indians maniacs and they’re not going to follow any treaties with them
Colorado Col. John Chivington who is a former minister kills 150 mostly women and children Indians that came to the governor for protection
George Custer June 26, 1876 against a scouting order takes 266 soldiers against 2000 Cherokee all 266 soldiers die against the Cherokees led by Crazy Horse the Indians say they just wanted peace and they were attacked and they had to defend themselves


6) What are the main developments in the story of the Nez Perce and Chief Joseph (Hin-mah-too-yah-lacht-ket)? The personalities and incidents of their history?

The Nez Perce Indians make a deal with Lewis and Clark to try to cultivate peace so they can open up trading posts near them but then gold was found on their land in 1860 in the minors didn’t follow those rules
Pres. Grant says that the roaming Nez Perce Indians tribe can have a bunch of land but homesteaders and gold miners go on the property anyway
chief Joseph was the leader of the new treaty tribe of Nez Perce Indians and he did not want to fight the white man so the government sent people to go and talk to him and they lose patience when he said that they love the land and they don’t plan to move and they tell them that they’re all going to move onto a reservation
and Indian kills some of the white man then all hell breaks loose and shots were fired 34 white men were killed and no Indians were killed the remaining white man run away but leave their guns and the Indians know that more troops will come back so they run away and go into Canada.
It is 1000 mile journey to Canada and they fight all the way along the way and the telegraph tells the white men where they are going so they keep getting caught running and pretty soon there’s only old people and children left they are surrounded at the Canadian border
the government makes promises to chief Joseph and he pleads with the government to stop fighting and to just treat everybody equally because were all brothers and sisters

7) What are the main developments and incidents in Geronimo’s life? (Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee)

Chiricahua Apaches they live on raids of Mexicans and Pueblo Indians and eat wild game.
The Mexicans murder the mother, wife, three children of a man named Goyakla

the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago and the Mexican war and gives most of the West to the United States. Including Apache land
the US government tells the Apaches they have to go to reservation and Geronimo refuses
for the next 30 years Geronimo fights against the United States
he surrenders in 1886 because the United States promises they will send his men to Florida to be with their families but they lied and sent them to prison and then to an Oklahoma reservation
Ghost Dance Hunkpapa Sioux Indians mostly women and kids gather for the ghost dance surrounded by military they massacre them
1890 Indian wars end
1904 chief Joseph dies of a broken heart
Geronimo becomes an attraction at the 1904 St. Louis world’s fair, Geronimo rides in Theodore Roosevelt inaugural parade, in World War II Native American paratroopers yell Geronimo when they jump out of planes the word the comes a meaning of joy.