Notes pp. 633–640 Brinkly Unfinished Nation
Analyze the major aspects of domestic debates over US expansionism in the 19th century and the early 20th century.
- Manifest destiny in the 1840s let us out West.
- 1846 because of the Mexican-American war we annexed California and other western territories.
- Americans pushed aside the Native Americans because they wanted their land.
- In the early days America had no navy so oversea conquest was out of their reach leaving them the surrounding areas around the United States.
- United States took Puerto Rico Cuba and the Philippines due to their navy.
Analyze the goals of US policy makers in major international conflicts, such as WWI, and explain how US involvement in these conflicts has altered the US role in world affairs.
- Pres. Wilson wanted to remain neutral in 1914 some sympathize with Germany because they hated Britain. Some sympathize with Britain.
- Economics and trade — British had a naval blockade on Germany so the US have the right to trade with Germany we hardly ever treated with central powers but Britain France Italy and Russia we traded with a lot so we continue to trade with Britain and accepted their blockade.
- Germans used submarines and Americans thought that was barbaric
- Germans sunk passenger liner that had Americans on board, later you find out their weapons on board
- Pres. Wilson told her many not to fire on neutral ships Germany agreed
- Pres. Wilson said there were no material aims in the conflict
- the Germans started unrestricted warfare on American and allied ships
- Britain gave Pres. Wilson the telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman hero to the government of Mexico simmer and said he would give back part of Texas and the American Southwest to Mexico if the Mexicans fought with them
- the Americans wanted American warships to help bring supplies and put out in a tie submarine mines in the North Sea
- Americans thought providing naval assistance alone would be enough they were wrong they need ground troops
Explain how the US involvement in global conflicts in the 20th century set the stage for domestic social changes.
- Pres. Wilson was having a hard time getting reelected in 1916 because he didn’t want to upset either side of the war sympathizers in the US
- Pres. Wilson wanted to prepare for more military in 1915
- 1916 Pres. Wilson’s campaign speech said he kept us out of war
- Wilson won reelection
- Teddy Roosevelt wanted to lead troops like he did in the Spanish-American war and he urged voluntary recruitment process
- Pres. Wilson decided we needed a national draft to provide the most amount of men
- the selective service act is the draft 3 million men into the Army another 2 million went to the other armed services
- spring 1918 significant number of American troops available for battle eight months later the wars over November 11, 1918 war over
Triple entente France Russia Britain
Triple alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Empire, Italy
So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to the ‘Great War’ — a name that had been touted even before the coming of the conflict.
Austria-Hungary, unsatisfied with Serbia’s response to her ultimatum (which in the event was almost entirely placatory: however her jibbing over a couple of minor clauses gave Austria-Hungary her sought-after cue) declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914.
Russia, bound by treaty to Serbia, announced mobilization of its vast army in her defense, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete.
Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August.
France, bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on 3 August. Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route.
Britain, allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a “moral obligation” upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August. Her reason for entering the conflict lay in another direction: she was obligated to defend neutral Belgium by the terms of a 75-year old treaty. With Germany’s invasion of Belgium on 4 August, and the Belgian King’s appeal to Britain for assistance, Britain committed herself to Belgium’s defence later that day. Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary.
With Britain’s entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and included Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa.
United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a US policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare — which seriously threatened America’s commercial shipping (which was in any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Britain and France) — forced the US to finally enter the war on 6 April 1917.
Japan, honoring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan.
Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both. In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a ‘defensive’ war; arguing that their actions were ‘offensive’ she declared instead a policy of neutrality. The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.