The restrictive foundation of the Articles of Confederation prohibited the federal government from dutifully protecting the people from chaos and corruption.

Problems with Articles of Confederation

  • The government was designed to be very weak, giving states the most power
  • Huge debt from the Revolutionary War (about $50 million)
  • Central government could not control fiscal or monetary policy
  • The government could not enforce any of the decisions that it made
  • Needed unanimous support from all of the 13 states to change the Articles of Confederation
  • The paper money was so worthless, it ceased to pass as currency
  • No power to tax

Resolution of these problems

  • Make government with three branches-Legislative, Executive, Judicial (separation of powers)
  • Disperses powers allowing for a system of checks and balances
  • Each branch has some power over the others so that no one branch becomes too powerful. Also protects against tyranny
  • Federalism-two levels of government-national and state
  • Constitution gives much more power to the federal govt.


Framers of the Constitution were wealthy white men! women, slaves, poor whites and native americans had no say in government and it would take a change to the constitution to fix this. Since this excluded population vastly outnumbered rich white men then the rule by the minority was now the law of the land, only about a quarter of the people in the United States could vote.

1 African Americans didn't get to vote counting the population of each state, a black man would count as only three-fifths as much as a white man.

2 Women are 50% of the population and they had no vote

3Native Americans were not allowed to vote in the first hundred years of the United States government.

4Poor whites couldn’t vote. even if you were a man and white you still couldn’t vote unless you owned property.

This meant that most white men living in the United States at this time could not vote. Rich men said this would make sure that only smart, sensible people voted.

3The Declaration of Independence gave birth to what is known today as the United States of America. The document is symbolic of American democracy One of the more immediate effects felt by the Declaration of Independence was the Emancipation of black slaves. Some say that Abraham Lincoln interpreted the Declaration in his own way and took literally the statement from the Declaration, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

The Declaration led to the Bill of Rights and the Constitution. The Bill of Rights in the United States is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known. While the Declaration offered independence from Britain and made general statements, the Bill of Rights offers specific rights and laws, from freedom of speech, press and religion, to the right to keep and bear arms.

The Declaration of Independence has also left lasting effects upon other foreign nations, including the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and the Declaration of Independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.The Declaration of Independence has left its effects not just in the small and large details of the United States of America, but also in the details of other foreign countries


Life for the Native Americans before the white settlers came in was community based, and diverse tribes from all over the plains.Expansive Trading routes before whites came (Northwest - Great Lakes)


  1. Reservation Era (1850s-1887)
    • US Citizens swarmed into the new Indian land
    • Federal Policy was to alienate Indians and their culture from the white, dominant culture
    • Nearly 300 reservations established
  1. Allotment and Assimilation Era (1887-1934)
    • Instead of letting tribes live on their reservations, the act tried to impose American ideals of owning land and lifestyles onto the Indians
    • No longer aloud to maintain their separate religions and cultures
  2. Indian Reorganization Era (1934-1940s)
    • Reversed the US’ allotment policy
    • Helped to strengthen tribal governments
    • Many Indians today still own the land given to them during allotment


Manifest destiny is the destiny of the United States to expand its territory over all of North America to extend and enhance political social and economic influences all across the land.

Frederick Jackson Turner's frontier thesis said that American democracy was formed by the American frontier. The American frontier helped citizens establish their own liberty by releasing Americans from a European mindset. It took away old dysfunctional customs from Europe. He believed that the front tier had no need for standing armies, churches, aristocrats, nobles or any other European idea. It wasn't for rich men who controlled the land and charged heavy rents the front tier was free for the taking.

Manifest destiny hurt Native Americans by taking away promised lands. It decimated the Native American lifestyle by bringing disease, boarding schools, and battles between Native Americans and whites in what should have been Indian Territory but legally was now considered open land.

Manifest destiny had a positive effect on many Americans because it allowed them to live their dreams of land ownership.


From the very founding of the nation, the North and the South were different in almost every way. Economically and politically, the South revolved around the institution of slavery and an agriculture economy agricultural economy that benefited from slave labor. North was the industrial and financial center of the country by the early nineteenth century.


  • North was populated largely by small farms and larger towns and cities with mercantile and factory-based economies
  • The north was not completely dependent on farming especially because the farming land was so poor and rocky, so they had to find alternatives to flourish. In the north, because of the extremely cold winters, they could only farm during the summer
  • Traded Fur, fished, built boats and had booming maritime trade

the northern colonies had significantly more factories than the southern colonies and tended to trade in manufactured goods instead of raw products.


  • The South based many of its grievances on the doctrine of states' rights. . the federal government before the Civil War almost all decisions were made at the state level.
  • Throughout the war, the European powers watched and waited for one major southern victory, withholding aid until the South proved they could win the war. Without help from abroad, however, the South could never quite manage to win that all-important victory.
  • The south farmed on rich farm land, tobacco, cotton, and rice which they could then sell to the north,
  • In the south the climate was warm which allowed them to farm year round
  • South was populated by large plantations and had relatively fewer large cities and few factories.
  • the Southern economy was heavily reliant on slave labor.
  • Plantations, especially tobacco and sugar cane plantations require high amounts of labor and it's much more cost effective to have slaves than paid laborers.


The Abolitionist Movement & economic forces north-south debate #6

Manifest destiny of the 1840s Manifest destiny rationalized the appropriation of as much land as possible- from the Native Americans, from Mexico, from Brittan. Most of this new land was exploited by northerners who oppose slavery on economic grounds, not ethical ones. The slave holding southern states saw their political, economic, as well as their numerical strength diminishing. Attempts (Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska and Oklahoma) to maintain their strength led to the Civil War.


The course of a civilization is primarily driven by great individuals. The great thinkers of our time

John Winthrop city on a hill we have to work together start this new world

Washington led forces took chances made money married rich. Became the first US president he had the opportunity to be King that he believed in democracy

Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation and ended slave slavery by being a leader throughout the Civil War.


from the Declaration of Independence

“Life Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”


Freedom from British rule ability to better your position in life. Boston tea party were not paying taxes you don't own us anymore England get over it.


Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation also from the declaration of independence “all men are created equa”l.

Pursuit of Happiness

Manifest destiny opening up the West to settlers. Being able to live your dream have a farm and create your own future.Be anything you want to be. Open a store, be a farmer, have a saloon, women and former slaves were allowed to own land as well.