World War I Study Guide
Nation- a large aggregate of people united by language, common descent, history or culture living in a particular county or territory
Nationalism- a unique cultural identity of a people based upon common language, religion and national symbols
Nation-State- a Sovereign State whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent
State- a nation or territory considered as an organized political community under one government
Armistice- a truce in agreement to ending the fighting
Reparations – compensation demanded of the defeated nation by the victor in a war especially that demanded of Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I
What are the major themes/issues of this section? Congress of Vienna wanted to balance power throughout Europe.
What types of tensions exist?
Discuss the notion of conservatism as a reflection of the values of “The Old Order” (also see page 434), and liberalism as a reflection of new political desires including nationalism (nation-states). Central and Eastern Europe had a more conservative government than Western Europe. Eastern Europe and Russia were less industrial eyes and less educated to the ruling groups continued to dominate
Who were the members of the Triple Alliance in 1882? Germany, Austria/Hungary, Italy
Who were the members of the Triple Entente in 1907? France, Great Britain, Russia
What issue caused friction between Serbia-Russia and Austria-Hungary? Serbia wanted to become an independent state and that made Austria/Hungary mad. Serbia supported Russia and wanted in independent Slavic state in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary didn't want an independent Slavic state.
Why did Austria-Hungary want to attack Serbia? They thought Serbia assassinated their archduke.
What was the danger of attacking Serbia (who are their allies)? If you attack Serbia they thought Russia would attack them
What did Germany’s “blank check” assure Austria-Hungary? Germany promised full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria/Hungary
Events surrounding WWI Be able to discuss (give facts and significance about; or describe the impact of):
The Battles: which front, dates, casualties, significance (war technology?)
Tannenberg August 26, 1914 Russian and German armies only time Russia fought the war
Marne September 6, 1914 Germany within 30 miles of Paris French one push the Germans back 45 miles it was the last battle where people moved only stalemate in trench warfare after that
Verdun took place in France both sides suffered a lot of casualties 550,000 French died 434,000 German died February 21, 1916 to December 16 thinking 16
the battle of Somme north of the river July 1, 1916 British and the French fought against the Germans. 20,000 British died in the first day. 420,000 British killed 200,000 French killed 500,000 German killed
Origins of WWI - militarism, nationalism, alliances
militarism is a believe it that a government should maintain a strong military and use it to defend national interest
nationalism very patriotic and United country
alliances working together for, because
Art and poetry – themes often used as a way to recover from war, PTSD trauma expressed, troops could not send letters home so they use poetry to express what they wanted to say. Artist painted damages from the war and feelings of the people horrors of the war to show what was really happening
Warfare Technology - Airplanes, Tanks, Guns (types of advancements or specifics) airplanes started out crude and then they were lighter and more maneuverable and could he tack each other midair with machine guns. Tanks for use by the British and French the Germans didn't have tanks they could cross over trenches. Trains brought supplies and troops. Chemical warfare was first used by the Germans carried by the wind eventually was put into artillery shells and shot into trenches. Guns range from cannons to a short-range German machine guns killed many people
Total War - define the term, Women in WWI, Changes in industry, impact of war on civilian populations.
Trench Warfare - Stalemate (after the Marne in 1914), No Man’s land, Trench foot strategy to use trenches to create protection against fast advancing artillery. There were parallel to each other in six act. The no man's land was area between either armies trenches. Trench foot caused by cold wet conditions leads to amputation. After the battle of Marne it was the last time armies were pushed back only stalemate in trench warfare after that
Tuff stuff - Armenian Genocide, Shell Shock, Gas the Armenian government killed its own people in order to make the population smaller.
Gas chemical warfare and reduce the beginning of World War I. Tear grass nerve gas main effect was blindness 4% was death by gas. All the armies use gas. The Germans were the first to use weapons on soldiers. It was risky because changing wind could send it back to you
Shell shock amnesia headache dizziness terror hypersensitivity to noise. From exploding artillery. 10% of British officers and 4% of men suffered shell shock.
Submarine warfare - restricted versus unrestricted unresearched strict did is where they sink freighters and tankers without warning along with military ships.
Collapse and Armistice
What happened with the collapse and armistice of Germany? The allies that won the war were unwilling to make peace with the type of government that Germany had.
When? November 3, 1918
What happened to the German Empire? Emperor left and social Democrats announced the creation of a democratic republic.
What even caused the collapse of the German war effort? The German people were tired and angry it was too late for reforms for a liberal government
How were the people of Germany feeling at the end of the war? Tired and angry
1. The U.S. President ___Woodrow Wilson _ outlined his blueprint for peace called?
2. What did this “blueprint” call for? 14 points for peace settlement, reduce military forces and weapons and say that each people have the right to their own nation.
The Paris Peace Conference
1. According to the textbook, British Prime Minister ____ David Lloyd George __ was motivated by what and wanted what from the Peace Treaty?
2. According to the textbook, French Prime Minister ___Georges Clemenceau__ was motivated by what and wanted what from the Peace Treaty? France wanted national security they suffered the most from German aggression they wanted revenge and security against future German attacks they want to Germany stripped of weapons and reparations paid back to cover the cost of war in a buffer state between France and Germany
The Treaty of Versailles
1. The War Guilt Clause required reparations from Germany. Define reparations. What do reparations entail in this case? Reparations are payment for the cost of war
2. What were the military and territorial provisions of the treaty that impacted Germany? France gave up a nation between them and Germany and got into an alliance with Great Britain and the US. Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 men, cut back its Navy, eliminate the Air Force. A new Polish state was made in eastern Germany